Octopuses are active predators with highly flexible bodies and rich behavioral repertoires [1-3]. They display advanced cognitive abilities, and the size of their large nervous system rivals that of many mammals . However, only one third of the neurons constitute the CNS, while the rest are located in an elaborate PNS, including eight arms, each containing myriad sensory receptors of various modalities [2-4]. This led early workers to question the extent to which the CNS is privy to non-visual sensory input from the periphery and to suggest that it has limited capacity to finely control arm movement [3-5]. This conclusion seemed reasonable considering the size of the PNS and the results of early behavioral tests [3 , 6-8]. We recently demonstrated that octopuses use visual information to control goal-directed complex single arm movements . However, that study did not establish whether animals use information from the arm itself [9-12]. We here report on development of two-choice, single-arm mazes that test the ability of octopuses to perform operant learning tasks that mimic normal tactile exploration behavior and require the non-peripheral neural circuitry to use focal sensory information originating in single arms [1 , 10]. We show that the CNS of the octopus uses peripheral information about arm motion as well as tactile input to accomplish learning tasks that entail directed control of movement . We conclude that although octopus arms have a great capacity to act independently, they are also subject to central control, allowing well-organized, purposeful behavior of the organism as a whole.