BACKGROUND South Korea is among the best-performing countries in tackling the coronavirus pandemic by utilizing mass drive-through testing, facemasks use, and extensive social distancing . However, understanding the patterns of risk perception could also facilitate effective risk communication to minimize the impacts of disease spread during this crisis .
OBJECTIVE We attempted to explore patterns of community health risk perceptions of COVID-19 in South Korea using Internet search data .
METHODS Google Trends (GT) and NAVER relative search volumes (RSVs) data were collected using COVID-19-related terms in the Korean language and were retrieved according to time, gender, age groups, types of device, and location . Online queries were compared to the number of daily new COVID-19 cases and tests reported in the Kaggle open-access dataset for time period of December 5 , 2019 to May 31 , 2020 . Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were employed to assess whether correlations between new COVID-19 cases and Internet searches were affected by time . We also constructed a prediction model of new COVID-19 cases using the number of COVID-19 cases, tests, GT, and NAVER RSVs in lag periods (of 3 to 1 days). Single and multiple regressions were employed using backward elimination and a variance inflation factor (VIF) of <5 .
RESULTS Numbers of COVID-19-related queries in South Korea increased during local events including local transmission, approval of coronavirus test kits, implementation of coronavirus drive-through tests, a facemask shortage, and a widespread campaign for social distancing as well as during international events such as the announcement of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization . Online queries were also stronger in women (r=0.763~0.823; p <0.05), and age groups of ≤29 (r=0.726~0.821; p <0.05), 30~44 (r=0.701~0.826; p <0.05), and ≥50 years (r=0.706~0.725; p <0.05). In terms of spatial distribution, GT and NAVER RSVs were higher in affected areas . Moreover, greater correlations were found in mobile searches (r=0.704~0.804; p <0.05) compared to those of desktop searches (r=0.705~0.717; p <0.05), indicating changing behaviors in searching for online health information during the outbreak . Those varied Internet searches related to COVID-19 represented community health risk perceptions . In addition, as a country with a high number of coronavirus tests, results showed that adults perceived coronavirus test-related information as being more important than disease-related knowledge . Meanwhile, younger and older age groups had different perceptions . Moreover, NAVER RSVs can potentially be used for health risk perception assessments and disease predictions . Adding COVID-19-related searches provided by NAVER could increase the performance of the model compared to that of the COVID-19 case-based model and potentially be used to predict epidemic curves .
CONCLUSIONS The use of both GT and NAVER RSVs to explore patterns of community health risk perceptions could be beneficial for targeting risk communication from several perspectives, including time, population characteristics, and location . CLINICALTRIAL