Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a common commensal bacterium in adults but remains a leading source of invasive infections in newborns, pregnant women, and the elderly, and more recently, causes an increased incidence of invasive disease in nonpregnant adults . Reduced penicillin susceptibility and emerging resistance to non-β-lactams pose challenges for the development and implementation of novel, nonantimicrobial strategies to reduce the burden of GBS infections . Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) via the production of singlet oxygen or other reactive oxygen species leads to the successful eradication of pathogenic bacteria, affecting numerous cellular targets of microbial pathogens and indicating a low risk of resistance development . Nevertheless, we have previously reported possible aPDI tolerance development upon repeated sublethal aPDI applications; thus, the current work was aimed at investigating whether aPDI tolerance could be observed for GBS and what mechanisms could cause it . To address this problem , 10 cycles of sublethal aPDI treatments employing rose bengal as a photosensitizer, were applied to the S. agalactiae ATCC 27956 reference strain and two clinical isolates (2306/02 and 2974/07, serotypes III and V, respectively). We demonstrated aPDI tolerance development and stability after 5 cycles of subculturing with no aPDI exposure . Though the treatment resulted in a stable phenotype, no increases in mutation rate or accumulated genetic alterations were observed (employing a RIF-, CIP-, STR-resistant mutant selection assay and cyl sequencing, respectively). qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that 10 sublethal aPDI exposures led to increased expression of all tested major oxidative stress response elements; changes in sodA, ahpC, npx, cylE, tpx and recA expression indicate possible mechanisms of developed tolerance . Increased expression upon sublethal aPDI treatment was reported for all but two genes, namely, ahpC and cylE . aPDI targeting cylE was further supported by colony morphology changes induced with 10 cycles of aPDI (increased SCV population, increased hemolysis, increased numbers of dark- and unpigmented colonies). In oxidant killing assays, aPDI-tolerant strains demonstrated no increased tolerance to hypochlorite, superoxide (paraquat), singlet oxygen (new methylene blue) or oxidative stress induced by aPDI employing a structurally different photosensitizer, i.e., zinc phthalocyanine, indicating a lack of cross resistance . The results indicate that S. agalactiae may develop stable aPDI tolerance but not resistance when subjected to multiple sublethal phototreatments, and this risk should be considered significant when defining efficient anti-S. agalactiae aPDI protocols.