Contaminated sites from pesticide industry have attracted global concern due to the characteristics of organic pollution with high concentrations and complete loss of habitat conditions . Remediation of organophosphorus pesticide polluted soil using microwave-activated persulfate (MW/PS) oxidation was investigated in this study, with parathion as the representative pesticide . Approximately 90% of parathion was degraded after 90 min of MW/PS oxidation treatment, which was superior to those by single PS or MW treatment . Relatively greater performances for parathion degradation were obtained in a relatively larger PS dosage, higher microwave temperature, and lower organic matter content . Appropriate soil moisture favored parathion degradation in soil . SO, OH, O, and O generated in the MW/PS system all contributed to parathion degradation . Multiple spectroscopy analyses indicated that PO and PS bonds in parathion were destroyed after MW/PS oxidation, accompanied by generation of hydroxylated and carbonylated byproducts . The soil safety after parathion degradation was assessed via model prediction . Furthermore, MW/PS oxidation also exhibited great performance for degradation of other organophosphorus pesticides, including ethion, phorate, and terbufos.