Coronaviruses (CoVs) are non-segmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses highly pathogenic to humans . Some CoVs are known to cause respiratory and intestinal diseases, posing a threat to the global public health . Against this backdrop, it is of critical importance to develop safe and effective vaccines against these CoVs . This review discusses human vaccine candidates in any stage of development and explores the viral characteristics, molecular epidemiology, and immunology associated with CoV vaccine development . At present, there are many obstacles and challenges to vaccine research and development, including the lack of knowledge about virus transmission, pathogenesis, and immune response, absence of the most appropriate animal models . This article is protected by copyright . All rights reserved.