The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to determine the impact of a recent trauma on thyroid axis and adrenal activity in dogs and to assess the usefulness of urinary cortisol-to-creatinine ratio (UCCR), basal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine (tT4), and free thyroxine (fT4) concentrations in predicting outcome in dogs traumatized by a road traffic accident (RTA). An RTA exposed group of 210 dogs was evaluated within 24 hours of the trauma . Their data were compared with data from a matched group of dogs with other diagnoses . UCCR was positively correlated with the trauma severity and was higher in the exposed group than in the nonexposed group (median 101.500 vs. 21.02; p <0.0001). tT4 values were statistically similar between the two groups, but were correlated with a trauma score, while TSH (median = 0.050 vs. 0.080 ng/mL; p <0.0001) and fT4 (median = 15.850 vs. 17.950 pmol/L; p = 0.0037) were significantly lower for the exposed group . Nonsurvivors in comparison to survivors presented and higher median UCCR (181.800 vs. 93.850 respectively; p = 0.020), and a lower serum fT4 (12.700 vs. 16.500 pmol/L, respectively; p = 0.0046). A similar pattern had been observed for tT4 . TSH levels were not predictive of survival . This study provides insights into the endocrine characteristics of dogs suffering from acute trauma. UCCR was higher while fT4 and TSH were both lower in RTA-injured dogs than in dogs affected by other conditions . Furthermore low fT4 and tT4, and a high UCCR could be useful prognostic factors in dogs affected by RTA trauma.