Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are mainly characterized by their unlimited proliferation abilities and potential to develop into almost any cell type . The creation of this technology has been of great interest to many scientific fields, especially regenerative biology . However, concerns about the safety of iPSC application in transplantation have arisen due to the tumorigenic and immunogenic properties of iPSCs . This review will briefly introduce the developing history of somatic reprogramming and applications of iPSC technology in regenerative medicine . In addition, the review will highlight two challenges to the efficient usage of iPSCs and the underlying mechanisms of these challenges . Finally, the review will discuss the expanding application of iPSC technology in cancer immunotherapy as a potential cancer vaccine and its advantages in auxiliary treatment compared with oncofetal antigen-based and embryonic stem cell (ESC) -based vaccines.