Amid national protests over police brutality, debates over law enforcement in schools have been reignited . Though research has focused on the consequences of police presence in schools, few studies have investigated the roles of school police officers (SPOs) and whether the larger contexts influence them . Using a bioecological framework (Bronfenbrenner and Morris , 2006), we examined how historical, social and developmental contexts shape SPOs' views of their roles and the challenges and opportunities they encounter . Nineteen 90-min focus groups with 45 SPOs from one large school police department were conducted . Analysis revealed that SPOs perceived their roles as multifaceted, encompassing both formal (e.g., law enforcer, educator) and informal (e.g., confidante, counselor) roles . These roles were enacted differently depending on the school level and neighborhood context . Furthermore, the challenges and opportunities SPOs reported were also contextualized emerging from changes in school policies, the rise in technology and social media and increased professionalization of their police department . Implications for theory and research as well as for training and policy are discussed.