Introduction: Delirium and catatonia are two representations of acute brain dysfunction that can occur in medically ill patients . It has become increasingly evident that delirium and catatonia can co-occur in the setting of medical illnesses . Delirium and catatonia have been separately described as neuropsychiatric sequelae of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection; however, to the best of our knowledge the co-occurrence of delirium and catatonia in the setting of COVID-19 has not been previously reported . Case: We describe a case of concurrent delirium and catatonia in a 70-year-old woman with multiple medical comorbidities but with no prior psychiatric history, who was hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia . Her symptoms of both delirium and catatonia improved with administration of low-dose lorazepam .
Discussion: We highlight the importance of recognizing catatonia in medically ill patients and the overlap between and co-occurrence of delirium and catatonia in this population . We explore how the conditions imposed by COVID-19 illness and its unique pathophysiology predispose patients to the development of both delirium and catatonia, as well as the challenges imposed by traditionally different approaches to treatment of these two conditions . Conclusion: Delirium and catatonia can co-occur in the context of acute COVID-19 illness . Features specific to COVID-19, both pathophysiological and environmental, create a unique set of conditions, which predispose patients to co-occurring delirium and catatonia . Delirium and co-occurring catatonia may improve with administration of low-dose lorazepam in selected patients.