Emerging and re-emerging viruses represent an important challenge for global public health . In the 1960s, coronaviruses (CoVs) were recognized as disease agents in humans . In only two decades, three strains of CoVs have crossed species barriers rapidly emerging as human pathogens resulting in life-threatening disease with a pandemic potential: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002, Middle-East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 and the recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 . This narrative review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of epidemiological, pathogenic and clinical features, along with diagnosis and treatment, of the ongoing epidemic of new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the pediatric population in comparison to the first two previous deadly coronavirus outbreaks, SARS and MERS . Literature analysis showed that SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infections seem to affect children less commonly and less severely as compared with adults . Since children are usually asymptomatic, they are often not tested, leading to an underestimate of the true numbers infected . Most of the documented infections belong to family clusters, so the importance of children in transmitting the virus remains uncertain . Like in SARS and MERS infection, there is the possibility that children are not an important reservoir for novel CoVs and this may have important implications for school attendance . While waiting for an effective against SARS-CoV-2, further prevalence studies in paediatric age are needed, in order to clarify the role of children in different age groups in the spread of the infection.