The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still spreading worldwide, affecting several million people . Unlike the previous two coronavirus outbreaks, COVID-19 has caused several thousand deaths for respiratory and multiple organ failure . As specifically concerns this latest infectious pathology, laboratory medicine can provide a substantial contribution to diagnosing an acute severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection through molecular testing, establishing the presence and extent of an immune response against the virus, mostly through serological testing . However, it can also help to predict the risk of unfavorable disease progression by measuring some conventional laboratory tests and, last but not least, can provide reliable therapeutic guidance . This article is hence aimed at offering recent updates on the important role and value of laboratory investigations in COVID-19, also providing information on some hot topics such as virus RNA detection in different biological samples, causes of recurrent positivity of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), potential strategies for enhancing the throughput of molecular testing (i.e., pre-test probability assessment, sample pooling, use of rapid tests), as well as pragmatic indications for enhancing the quality and value of serological testing and laboratory-based monitoring.