INTRODUCTION: Triclosan (TCS) is an extensively used antibacterial agent which has been frequently detected in different environmental compartments . Because of TCS inhibition effect on vast majority of bacterial species, it is important to explore fungal species and their involved enzymes in TCS biodegradation . The aim of this study was to compare the potential of two white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor for TCS biodegradation through the whole cell culture of fungi in an aqueous culture medium . Additionally, the changes in ligninolytic enzyme activities and possible correlations and contributions of degradative enzymes during TCS biodegradation process were monitored . MATERIAL AND
METHODS: This study was carried out using a factorial experiment with a completely randomized design in three replications . factorial design in The experimental factors included: two white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor and uninoculated controls which were subjected to five levels of TCS concentrations (0 , 5 , 10 , 20 , 30 and 50â¯µgâ¯mL-1) to assess ligninolytic enzymatic activity during biodegradation of TCS . Samples were harvested periodically at three time intervals (4 , 7 and 10 days). An AB SCIEX 3200 QTRAP LC-MS/MS system was used in order to analyze the biodegradation of TCS in liquid medium .
RESULTS: Results suggested that the two white rot fungi responded differently when exposed to the different concentrations of TCS . In general, P. ostreatus exhibited more potential and ligninolytic enzymatic activity compared to T. versicolor . LC-MS/MS analyses also showed that P. ostreatus degraded TCS with higher efficiency compared to T. versicolor . In addition, almost all P. ostreatus biodegradation activity was completed within the first day of sampling . Contrasting, less efficient degradation was observed by T. versicolor, reaching around 88% of TCS biodegradation at concentration of 20â¯µg mL-1after 10 days . At higher TCS concentrations (≥30â¯µgâ¯mL-1), the growth of T. versicolor severely inhibited and led to a drop in enzymatic activity and biodegradation . Furthermore, laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) were determined as more involved enzymes which significantly correlated to TCS biodegradation by T. versicolor and P. ostreatus, respectively .
CONCLUSION: P. ostreatus might be considered as efficient fungus in biodegradation of high amount of TCS in environmental matrices . The results of the present study might provide insights for future investigations on potential of fungi for applications in bioaugmentation-based strategies to remove TCS from wastewater and activated sludge.