BACKGROUND: Due to a high prevalence of chronic non-degenerative diseases, it is suspected that COVID 19 poses a high risk of fatal complications for the Mexican population . The present study aims to estimate the risk factors for hospitalization and death in the Mexican population infected by SARS-CoV-2 .
METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the publicly available data released by the Epidemiological Surveillance System for Viral Respiratory Diseases of the Mexican Ministry of Health (Secretaría de Salud, SSA). All records of positive SARS-CoV-2 cases were included . Two multiple logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the association between hospitalization and mortality, with other covariables . Data on 10,544 individuals (57.68% men), with mean age 46.47±15.62, were analyzed . Men were about 1.54 times more likely to be hospitalized than women (p <0.001 , 95% C.I . 1.37-1.74); individuals aged 50-74 and ≥74 were more likely to be hospitalized than people aged 25-49 (OR 2.05, p <0.001 , 95% C.I . 1.81-2.32, and OR 3.84, p <0.001 , 95% C.I . 2.90-5.15, respectively). People with hypertension, obesity, and diabetes were more likely to be hospitalized than people without these comorbidities (p <0.01). Men had more risk of death in comparison to women (OR = 1.53, p <0.001 , 95% C.I . 1.30-1.81) and individuals aged 50-74 and ≥75 were more likely to die than people aged 25-49 (OR 1.96, p <0.001 , 95% C.I . 1.63-2.34, and OR 3.74, p <0.001 , 95% C.I . 2.80-4.98, respectively). Hypertension, obesity, and diabetes presented in combination conveyed a higher risk of dying in comparison to not having these diseases (OR = 2.10; p <0.001 , 95% C.I . 1.50-2.93). Hospitalization, intubation and pneumonia entail a higher risk of dying (OR 5.02, p <0.001 , 95% C.I . 3.88-6.50; OR 4.27, p <0.001 , 95% C.I . 3.26-5.59, and OR = 2.57; p <0.001 , 95% C.I . 2.11-3.13, respectively). Our study's main limitation is the lack of information on mild (asymptomatic) or moderate cases of COVID-19 .
CONCLUSIONS: The present study points out that in Mexico, where an important proportion of the population has two or more chronic conditions simultaneously, a high mortality rate is a serious risk for those infected by SARS-CoV-2.