BACKGROUND: eHealth is the use of information and communication technologies to enable and improve health and health care services . It is crucial that medical students receive adequate training in eHealth as they will work in clinical environments that are increasingly being enabled by technology . This trend is especially accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic as it complicates traditional face-to-face medical consultations and highlights the need for innovative approaches in health care .
OBJECTIVE: This review aims to evaluate the extent and nature of the existing literature on medical student training in eHealth . In detail, it aims to examine what this education consists of, the barriers, enhancing factors, and propositions for improving the medical curriculum . This review focuses primarily on some key technologies such as mobile health (mHealth), the internet of things (IoT), telehealth, and artificial intelligence (AI).
METHODS: Searches were performed on 4 databases, and articles were selected based on the eligibility criteria . Studies had to be related to the training of medical students in eHealth . The eligibility criteria were studies published since 2014, from a peer-reviewed journal, and written in either English or French . A grid was used to extract and chart data .
RESULTS: The search resulted in 25 articles . The most studied aspect was mHealth . eHealth as a broad concept, the IoT, AI, and programming were least covered . A total of 52% (13/25) of all studies contained an intervention, mostly regarding mHealth, electronic health records, web-based medical resources, and programming . The findings included various barriers, enhancing factors, and propositions for improving the medical curriculum .
CONCLUSIONS: Trends have emerged regarding the suboptimal present state of eHealth training and barriers, enhancing factors, and propositions for optimal training . We recommend that additional studies be conducted on the following themes: barriers, enhancing factors, propositions for optimal training, competencies that medical students should acquire, learning outcomes from eHealth training, and patient care outcomes from this training . Additional studies should be conducted on eHealth and each of its aspects, especially on the IoT, AI, programming, and eHealth as a broad concept . Training in eHealth is critical to medical practice in clinical environments that are increasingly being enabled by technology . The need for innovative approaches in health care during the COVID-19 pandemic further highlights the relevance of this training.