Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease with no absolute cure . Although the exact etiopathogenesis of SLE is still enigmatic, it has been well demonstrated that a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors trigger a disturbance in immune responses and thereby participate in the development of this condition . Almost all available therapeutic strategies in SLE are primarily based on the administration of immunosuppressive drugs and are not curative . Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a subset of non-hematopoietic adult stem cells that can be isolated from many adult tissues and are increasingly recognized as immune response modulating agents . MSC-mediated inhibition of immune responses is a complex mechanism that involves almost every aspect of the immune response . MSCs suppress the maturation of antigen-presenting cells (DC and MQ), proliferation of T cells (Th1, T17, and Th2), proliferation and immunoglobulin production of B cells, the cytotoxic activity of CTL and NK cells in addition to increasing regulatory cytokines (TGF-ß and IL10), and decreasing inflammatory cytokines (IL17, INF-Ï, TNF-α, and IL12) levels . MSCs have shown encouraging results in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases, in particular SLE . This report aims to review the beneficial and therapeutic properties of MSCs; it also focuses on the results of animal model studies, preclinical studies, and clinical trials of MSC therapy in SLE from the immunoregulatory aspect.