OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the potential of cervical lymph node shear wave elastography (SWE) to quantify the lymph node stiffness (kilopascals) noninvasively among patients with lymph node-first presentation of Kawasaki disease (NFKD), patients with bacterial cervical lymphadenitis (BCL), and healthy children (HC). We further aimed to investigate the correlation of laboratory data and lymph node stiffness to provide a reference basis for the early diagnosis of NFKD .
METHODS: Lymph node stiffness measurements were prospectively performed in 47 patients with NFKD, 56 patients with BCL, and 56 HC using SWE . Cervical SWE was compared in the groups . Factors associated with increased cervical lymph node stiffness were studied .
RESULTS: The mean elasticity of the largest cervical lymph nodes was significantly higher in the BCL group than the NFKD and HC groups (mean elasticity ± SD , 16.37 ± 2.45 , 12.22 ± 2.64, and 7.81 ± 1.67 kPa, respectively; P <.01), with a cutoff of 14.55 kPa (area under the curve , 0.885; sensitivity , 89% ; and specificity , 76 %). In patients with NFKD, interleukin 6 (standardized ß = 0.363; P = .01), alanine aminotransferase (standardized ß = 0.253; P = .03), aspartate aminotransaminase (standardized ß = 0.536; P = .047), and total bilirubin (standardized ß = 0.486; P <.01) values were correlated with increased largest cervical lymph node stiffness .
CONCLUSIONS: Cervical lymph node stiffness was different between NFKD and BCL . Shear wave elastography is a potential method to identify clinically distinguishable early NFKD.