Epidemics or outbreak is a sudden spread of the disease within a short time to a large number of people in a given population . Ayurveda is an ancient system of medicine, clearly mentioned about such diseases causing epidemic under a broad term ’ Janapadodhwamsa ’ . There is no term as Epidemiology in Ayurveda, but the principles were described in piecemeal when com-piled, analysed and interpreted the same as a modern theory of Epidemiol-ogy . Many of today ’ s medical sciences coincide with some of the basic principles of Ayurveda . Today whole world is suffering from the COVID-19 pan-demic . To assess the concepts of epidemiology in Ayurveda and to com-pare the same with recent COVID-19 pandemic . Literary study of the epidemic was done thoroughly, including classical treatises like Charak Samhita, Sushrut Samhita & modern textbooks of epidemiology . Most of the concepts of Ayurveda about Janapadodhwamsa are found relevant to current theories of pandemic/epidemic . When COVID-19 pandemic compares with Janapadod-hwamsa, it shows similarity in concepts like aetiology, modes of transmis-sion, principles of prevention of outbreaks etc . Also, control measures of COVID-19 can be compared with Hetu-viparit & Vyadhi-viparitchikitsa . The concepts described in Ayurveda regarding Janapadodhwamsa are more or like the present modern concept of the pandemic/epidemic . Thus, the ancient Indian medicinal systems were well known to the fact of the epidemics & outbreaks of infectious diseases.