The COVID-19 pandemic is another challenge in South Africa's history, which is characterized by apartheid and its aftermath, the AIDS pandemic, and ongoing social and transgenerational trauma . South Africans have experienced serial collective trauma . The virus arrived here later than in the other parts of the world, offering possible respite to already burdened parallel health systems . The pandemic will exacerbate social and economic challenges and increase mental health risks . South African resilience will be tested again.