Purpose: The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has cost numerous lives and induced tremendous mental stress among people. The purpose of this research was to determine anxiety and depression levels, clinical features, and the connections between demographic variables and depression prevalence as well as anxiety prevalence among reported COVID-19 cases in Bangladesh. Methods: For the purpose of data collection, an online cross-sectional survey was carried out from May 26 to June 27, 2020, utilizing a Google adapted preformed questionnaire. The form was shared with a short overview and justification through Facebook, Twitter, Facebook messenger, Viber, and What’s App. The Google form contains five parts: a brief introduction, an approval statement, demographics, clinical and radiological data, and mental health assessment by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Formal ethical clearance was taken from the Institute of Biological Science (IBSc), Bangladesh. Informed consent was ensured before participation. Results: One hundred and fifty-three (153) patients with COVID-19 who had an average age of 39.43 ± 17.59 years with male predominance (72%) were included. A total of 32.7% were doing health-care related jobs, and 17.7% lost their jobs due to COVID-19. Patients had a median income of 30,000 Bangladesh taka (BDT). Of all, 12.4% of the participants showed asymptomatic features, whereas 87.6% of patients were symptomatic and presented with fever (79%), cough (58.8%), myalgia (24.2%), breathlessness (23.5%), sore throat (21.6%), fatigue (19.6%), headache (13.7%), nausea and/or vomiting (11.8%), runny nose (9.8%), chest pain (9.2%), diarrhea (8.5%), stuffy nose (3.2%), ARDS (2.6%), oral ulcer (2.6%), and conjunctivitis (1.9%). Overall, the prevalence of anxiety and depression was 63.5% and 56.6%, respectively. Among the participants, 13.2% had only anxiety, 6.3% had only depression, and 50.3% had both. Conclusion: In most cases, middle age, male, and healthy workers were patients. Fever and cough were the standard presentations. Approximately two-thirds or 66.67% of patients had anxiety and depression, one or both.