[SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19-epidemiology and prevention]./ SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Epidemiologie und Prävention
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread globally since December 2019. A first wave is visible up to the end of June 2020 in many regions. This article presents a review of the current knowledge on the epidemiology and prevention. The SARS-CoV2 predominantly replicates in the upper and lower respiratory tracts and is particularly transmitted by droplets and aerosols. The estimate for the basic reproduction number (R0) is between 2 and 3 and the median incubation period is 6 days (range 2-14 days). As with the related SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV), superspreading events play an important role in the dissemination. A high proportion of infections are uncomplicated but moderate or severe courses develop in 5-10% of infected persons. Pneumonia, cardiac involvement and thromboembolisms are the most frequent manifestations leading to hospitalization. Risk factors for a complicated course are high age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases as well as immunodeficiency. Currently, the estimation for the infection fatality rate (IFR) is between 0.5% and 1% across all age groups. Outbreaks were limited in many regions with bundles of various measures for reduction of social contacts. The incidence for the first wave in Germany can be estimated as 0.4-1.8% and excess mortality could not be observed.