Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to constitute a public health emergency of international concern . Multiple vaccine candidates for COVID-19, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), have entered clinical trials . However, some evidence suggests that patients who have recovered from COVID-19 can be reinfected . For example, in China, two discharged COVID-19 patients who had recovered and fulfilled the discharge criteria for COVID-19 were retested positive to a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the virus . This finding is critical and could hamper COVID-19 vaccine development . This review offers literature-based evidence of reinfection with SARS-CoV-2, provides explanation for the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection both from the agent and host points of view, and discusses its implication for COVID-19 vaccine development.