The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified African-Americans as having increased risk of COVID-19-associated mortality . Access to healthcare and related social determinants of health are at the core of this disparity . To explore the geographical links between race and COVID-19 mortality, we created descriptive maps of COVID-19 mortality rates in relation to the percentage of populations self-identifying as African-American across the USA, by state, and Pennsylvania (PA), by county . In addition, we used bivariate and logistic regression analyses to quantify the statistical relationship between these variables, and control for area-level demographic, healthcare access, and comorbidity risk factors . We found that COVID-19 mortality rates were generally higher in areas that had higher African-American populations, particularly in the northeast USA and eastern PA . These relationships were quantified through Pearson correlations showing significant positive associations at the state and county level . At the US state-level, percent African-American population was the only significant correlate of COVID-19 mortality rate . In PA at the county-level, higher percent African-American population was associated with higher COVID-19 mortality rate even after controlling for area-level confounders . More resources should be allocated to address high COVID-19 mortality rates among African-American populations.
Index: African-American, COVID-19, GIS, Pennsylvania