The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has almost 56 million confirmed cases resulting in over 1.3 million deaths as of November 2020 . This infection has proved more deadly to older adults (those> 65 years of age) and those with immunocompromising conditions . The worldwide population aged 65 years and older is increasing, and the total number of aged individuals will outnumber those younger than 65 years by the year 2050 . Aging is associated with a decline in immune function and chronic activation of inflammation that contributes to enhanced viral susceptibility and reduced responses to vaccination . Here we briefly review the pathogenicity of the virus, epidemiology and clinical response, and the underlying mechanisms of human aging in improving vaccination . We review current methods to improve vaccination in the older adults using novel vaccine platforms and adjuvant systems . We conclude by summarizing the existing clinical trials for a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and discussing how to address the unique challenges for vaccine development presented with an aging immune system.
Index: (4–6): SARS-CoV-2, Adjuvants, Aging, Vaccine delivery platforms, Vaccines