Camels are domesticated animals that are highly adapted to the extreme desert ecosystem with relatively higher resistance to a wide range of pathogens compared to many other species from the same geographical region . Recently, there has been increased interest in the field of camel immunology . As the progress in the analysis of camel immunoglobulins has previously been covered in many recent reviews, this review intends to summarize published findings related to camel cellular immunology with a focus on the phenotype and functionality of camel leukocyte subpopulations . The review also describes the impact of different physiological (age and pregnancy) and pathological (e.g . infection) conditions on camel immune cells . Despite the progress achieved in the field of camel immunology, there are gaps in our complete understanding of the camel immune system . Questions remain regarding innate recognition mechanisms, the functional characterization of antigen-presenting cells, and the characterization of camel NK and cytotoxic T cells.
Index: camel (Camelus dromedarius), immune, leukocytes, monocyte subpopulations, overview, review—systematic