Purpose: The integration of Artificial Intelligence into medical practices has recently been advocated for the promise to bring increased efficiency and effectiveness to these practices . Nonetheless, little research has so far been aimed at understanding the best human-AI interaction protocols in collaborative tasks, even in currently more viable settings, like independent double-reading screening tasks .
Methods: To this aim, we report about a retrospective case–control study, involving 12 board-certified radiologists, in the detection of knee lesions by means of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, in which we simulated the serial combination of two Deep Learning models with humans in eight double-reading protocols . Inspired by the so-called Kasparov ’ s Laws, we investigate whether the combination of humans and AI models could achieve better performance than AI models alone, and whether weak reader, when supported by fit-for-use interaction protocols, could out-perform stronger readers .
Results: We discuss two main findings: groups of humans who perform significantly worse than a state-of-the-art AI can significantly outperform it if their judgements are aggregated by majority voting (in concordance with the first part of the Kasparov ’ s law); small ensembles of significantly weaker readers can significantly outperform teams of stronger readers, supported by the same computational tool, when the judgments of the former ones are combined within “ fit-for-use ” protocols (in concordance with the second part of the Kasparov ’ s law). Conclusion: Our study shows that good interaction protocols can guarantee improved decision performance that easily surpasses the performance of individual agents, even of realistic super-human AI systems . This finding highlights the importance of focusing on how to guarantee better co-operation within human-AI teams, so to enable safer and more human sustainable care practices.