INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 remains a threat for a fear of a second pandemic . Emergency orthopaedic operations are still among the most commonly performed procedures with increased risk of transmission of SARS CoV-2 to the patients and the healthcare workers . The aim of this study was to present the evidence available into best practices limiting the spread of COVID-19 in healthcare setting during current and future pandemics .
METHODS: A review of the literature was performed in multiple databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control), using 'COVID-19' with other relevant keywords in different combinations . Owing to the limited and heterogenous evidence available, data were presented in a narrative manner . FINDINGS: From the evidence gathered it was noted that a multimodal approach to minimising pathogen transmission is required . This primarily comprises the wider engineering and administrative controls to reduce the concentration of the pathogen and to separate staff and patients from it . Theatre isolation and traffic control bundling, theatre flow and logistics, ventilation and waste management form a pivotal role in the environmental/engineering controls . Administrative measures include policies for both patients and staff . For patients, isolation and preoperative screening are of utmost value . For staff, testing for COVID-19, risk assessment, redeployment and provision of persona; protective equipment, together with the necessary training are important administrative controls .
CONCLUSION: We believe these measures are likely to improve the sustainability of resources and can be carried to elective settings in order to return to some form of normality and help to mitigate the effects of future pandemics.