Sleep has a profound influence on the physiology of body systems and biological processes . Molecular studies have shown circadian-regulated shifts in protein expression patterns across human tissues, further emphasizing the unique functional, behavioral and pharmacokinetic landscape of sleep . Thus, many pathological processes are also expected to exhibit sleep-specific manifestations . Nevertheless, sleep is seldom utilized for the study, detection and treatment of non-sleep-specific pathologies . Modern advances in biosensor technologies have enabled remote, non-invasive recording of a growing number of physiologic parameters and biomarkers . Sleep is an ideal time frame for the collection of long and clean physiological time series data which can then be analyzed using data-driven algorithms such as deep learning . In this perspective paper, we aim to highlight the potential of sleep as an auspicious time for diagnosis, management and therapy of nonsleep-specific pathologies . We introduce key clinical studies in selected medical fields, which leveraged novel technologies and the advantageous period of sleep to diagnose, monitor and treat pathologies . We then discuss possible opportunities to further harness this new paradigm and modern technologies to explore human health and disease during sleep and to advance the development of novel clinical applications: From sleep medicine to medicine during sleep.