Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS CoV-2) is currently an international pandemic causing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Viral entry requires ACE2 and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) for membrane fusion or through endosomal pathway . This Study aims to assess transcriptomic changes and differentially expressed genes (DFGs) in COVID-19 .
Methods: Transcriptomic data of the publicly available dataset (GSE147507) was quantile normalized and analysed for DFGs, network analysis and pathway analysis .
Results: DFG sets showed that 8 genes (SAE1, AEBP2, ATP1A1, DKK3, MAFF, NUDC, TRAP1, and VAV1) were significantly dysregulated in all studied groups . Functional analysis revealed that negative regulation of glucocorticoid biosynthesis, protein SUMOylation (SAE1), blood coagulation (VAV1) and cellular response to stress were affected by SARS CoV-2 infection . Cell line transduction with ACE2 vector didn't show significant changes in the dysregulated pathways . Also, no significant change was observed in expression levels of ACE2 or TMPRSS2 in response to SARS CoV-2 infection . Further analysis showed dysregulation of several genes in the SUMOylation pathway and blood coagulation process in human and cell lines transcriptome . Also, several Cathepsins proteases were significantly dysregulated in case of SARS CoV-2 infection . Genes related to cellular response to stress such as TRAP-1 and NOX were dysregulated in cases of SARS CoV-2 infection . Conclusion: Dysregulation in genes of protein SUMOylation, blood coagulation and response to oxidative stress pathways in SARS CoV-2 infection could be critical for disease progression . Drugs acting on SUMO pathway, VAV1, NOX genes could be studied for potential benefit to COVID-19 patients.