BACKGROUND: Brazil became the epicenter of the COVID-19 epidemic in a brief period of a few months after the first officially registered case . The knowledge of the epidemiological/clinical profile and the risk factors of Brazilian COVID-19 patients can assist in the decision making of physicians in the implementation of early and most appropriate measures for poor prognosis patients . However, these reports are missing . Here we present a comprehensive study that addresses this demand .
METHODS: This data-driven study was based on the Brazilian Ministry of Health Database (SIVEP-Gripe) regarding notified cases of hospitalized COVID-19 patients during the period from February 26th to August 10th , 2020 . Demographic data, clinical symptoms, comorbidities and other additional information of patients were analyzed .
RESULTS: The hospitalization rate was higher for male gender (56.56 %) and for older age patients of both sexes . Overall, the lethality rate was quite high (41.28 %) among hospitalized patients, especially those over 60 years of age . Most prevalent symptoms were cough, dyspnoea, fever, low oxygen saturation and respiratory distress . Cardiac disease, diabetes, obesity, kidney disease, neurological disease, and pneumopathy were the most prevalent comorbidities . A high prevalence of hospitalized COVID-19 patients with cardiac disease (65.7 %) and diabetes (53.55 %) and with a high lethality rate of around 50% was observed . The intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate was 39.37% and of these 62.4% died . 24.4% of patients required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), with high mortality among them (82.98 %). The main mortality risk predictors were older age and IMV requirement . In addition, socioeconomic conditions have been shown to significantly influence the disease outcome, regardless of age and comorbidities .
CONCLUSION: Our study provides a comprehensive overview of the hospitalized Brazilian COVID-19 patients profile and the mortality risk factors . The analysis also evidenced that the disease outcome is influenced by multiple factors, as unequally affects different segments of population.