AIMS: Vitamin supplementations have increasingly been advertised on media and reported to be widely used by the general public to improve cardiovascular health . Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, people have become more interested in ways to improve and maintain their health . Increased awareness of people on healthy lifestyle is translating into inquisition regarding dietary supplements .
AIM: First, focus on the most commonly used vitamin supplements and comprehensively review the evidence for and against recommending them to patients to improve and/or maintain cardiovascular health . Second, illustrate how the interest in studies shifted over time from Vitamin A, E, C, and B to Vitamin D and observational studies led to randomized controlled trials .
METHODS: A thorough PubMed search with the phrase: `` Vitamin supplements and cardiovascular health"was performed . In the present review, focus was maintained on the evidence for the use of vitamin supplements in the prevention of major cardiovascular events and/or the maintenance of cardiovascular health by comprehensively reviewing all previous studies indexed in PubMed . Studies with clinical 'hard' end-points were included only .
RESULTS: A total of 87 studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed in the present article . High-quality evidence suggesting benefits for the use of vitamin supplements to maintain or improve cardiovascular health in people is minimal to non-existent .
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin supplementation does not improve clinical cardiovascular outcomes in general population . Counseling on the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle with adequate and nutritious food intake seems more appropriate to improve and maintain cardiovascular health.
Index: COVID-19, Cardiovascular health, Clinical outcomes, Dietary supplements, Vitamin D, Vitamin supplementation