Global processes, such as climate change, frequent and distant travelling and population growth, increase the risk of viral infection spread . Unfortunately, the number of effective and accessible medicines for the prevention and treatment of these infections is limited . Therefore, in recent years, efforts have been intensified to develop new antiviral medicines or vaccines . In this review article, the structure and activity of the most promising antiviral cyanobacterial products are presented . The antiviral cyanometabolites are mainly active against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other enveloped viruses such as herpes simplex virus (HSV), Ebola or the influenza viruses . The majority of the metabolites are classified as lectins, monomeric or dimeric proteins with unique amino acid sequences . They all show activity at the nanomolar range but differ in carbohydrate specificity and recognize a different epitope on high mannose oligosaccharides . The cyanobacterial lectins include cyanovirin-N (CV-N), scytovirin (SVN), microvirin (MVN), Microcystisviridis lectin (MVL), and Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin (OAA). Cyanobacterial polysaccharides, peptides, and other metabolites also have potential to be used as antiviral drugs . The sulfated polysaccharide, calcium spirulan (CA-SP), inhibited infection by enveloped viruses, stimulated the immune system ’ s response, and showed antitumor activity . Microginins, the linear peptides, inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), therefore, their use in the treatment of COVID-19 patients with injury of the ACE2 expressing organs is considered . In addition, many cyanobacterial extracts were revealed to have antiviral activities, but the active agents have not been identified . This fact provides a good basis for further studies on the therapeutic potential of these microorganisms.