Background: Globally, case fatality rate is more in males compared to females . Some studies have suggested . It is hypothesized that estrogen hormone may decrease susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2.).
Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the gender differences in SARS CoV-2 outcomes and to analyze if there are any differences in outcomes in premenopausal females compared to postmenopausal females . Materials and
Methods: Patients tested positive for SARS CoV-2 through real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction by Thermo Fischer Taqpath assay approved by the Indian Council of Medical Research were included in the study . The data obtained was analyzed for the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics from their medical records .
Results: The mortality rate in females was 12.6%, whereas mortality in males was 19.4% . In between-group analysis , 8.6% (16/185) of females died in premenopausal age group versus 12.8% (27/211) in postmenopausal group . The proportion of females who expired due to COVID significantly differ by age and postmenopausal status X2 (1, n = 293) = 7.2, the P value is 0.007 . The difference is statistically significant at P <0.05 . Postmenopausal women were more likely to expire due to COVID-19 infection compared to premenopausal women . Conclusion: The mortality rate in postmenopausal age group was greater than mortality in premenopausal females emphasizing the protection provided by estrogens hormone in them . Postmenopausal women are also at higher risk of severe COVID-19 infection than premenopausal women . Mortality is greater in males compared to females, further strengthening the role of estrogens.
Index: Coronavirus, estrogen, gender differences, perimenopause, postmenopause