BACKGROUND: As a complement to the clinical development of new anticancer molecules, innovations in therapeutic vectorization aim at solving issues related to tumor specificity and associated toxicities . Nanomedicine is a rapidly evolving field that offers various solutions to increase clinical efficacy and safety . MAIN: Here are presented the recent advances for different types of nanovectors of chemical and biological nature, to identify the best suited for translational research projects . These nanovectors include different types of chemically engineered nanoparticles that now come in many different flavors of 'smart' drug delivery systems . Alternatives with enhanced biocompatibility and a better adaptability to new types of therapeutic molecules are the cell-derived extracellular vesicles and micro-organism-derived oncolytic viruses, virus-like particles and bacterial minicells . In the first part of the review, we describe their main physical, chemical and biological properties and their potential for personalized modifications . The second part focuses on presenting the recent literature on the use of the different families of nanovectors to deliver anticancer molecules for chemotherapy, radiotherapy, nucleic acid-based therapy, modulation of the tumor microenvironment and immunotherapy .
CONCLUSION: This review will help the readers to better appreciate the complexity of available nanovectors and to identify the most fitting``type"for efficient and specific delivery of diverse anticancer therapies.
Index: Cancer therapy, Drug delivery, Nanomedicine, Nanoparticle, Targeting, Vectorization, Vesicle, Virus