Background: This study aims to examine and determine the role of race/ethnicity in chronic conditions in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during any of their previous pregnancies .
Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from2007-2016 to identify women who self-reported prior GDM and chronic disease diagnoses such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, depression, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) .We used bivariate analysis using the chi-square test (χ²) and multiple logistic regressions to perform statistical test for associations, taking into consideration design and sample weight .
Results: Among participants with prior GDM diagnoses, black women had a 74.4% prevalence of chronic disease, followed by Whites, 58.5% Hispanics, 58.0%, and Asians, 51.9% (P=0.009) .Black women with prior GDM diagnoses had 2.4 odds of having chronic conditions compared to Whites (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.40 , 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28-4.50). In addition, they had higher odds of being former smokers (AOR=1.73 , 95% CI=1.01-2.96), current smokers (AOR=1.96 , 95% CI=1.06-3.61), having a body mass index (BMI) of 25-29.9 (AOR=2.55 , 95% CI=1.10-5.87), or a BMI ≥30 (AOR=4.09 , 95% CI = 2.05-8.17) compared to their White counterparts . Hispanic women had lower odds of being diagnosed with GDM and associated chronic diseases . Conclusion: Black women with GDM were disproportionally affected and at higher risk to be diagnosed with chronic conditions . Smoking and obesity were strongly associated with chronic disease diagnoses . Our findings also suggest a 'Hispanic Paradox', requiring further study . These findings inform primary care clinicians and Obstetricians, and Gynecologists of at-risk patients who could benefit from lifestyle modification recommendations and counseling.
Index: African Americans, Body mass index, Chronic condition, Diabetes, Disparity, Female, Gestational, Smoking