Viruses are highly dependent on the host they infect . Their dependence triggers processes of virus-host co-adaptation, enabling viruses to explore host resources whilst escaping immunity . Scientists have tackled viral-host interplay at differing levels of complexity-in individual hosts, organs, tissues and cells-and seminal studies advanced our understanding about viral lifecycles, intra- or inter-species transmission, and means to control infections . Recently, it emerged as important to address the physical properties of the materials in biological systems; membrane-bound organelles are only one of many ways to separate molecules from the cellular milieu . By achieving a type of compartmentalization lacking membranes known as biomolecular condensates, biological systems developed alternative mechanisms of controlling reactions . The identification that many biological condensates display liquid properties led to the proposal that liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) drives their formation . The concept of LLPS is a paradigm shift in cellular structure and organization . There is an unprecedented momentum to revisit long-standing questions in virology and to explore novel antiviral strategies . In the first part of this review, we focus on the state-of-the-art about biomolecular condensates . In the second part, we capture what is known about RNA virus-phase biology and discuss future perspectives of this emerging field in virology.
MeSH: Animals, Biophysical Phenomena, HIV, physiology, Host-Pathogen Interactions, physiology, Humans, Influenza A virus, physiology, Morbillivirus, physiology, Organelles, virology, SARS-CoV-2, physiology, Vesiculovirus, physiology, Virus Diseases, virology, Virus Internalization, Virus Physiological Phenomena
Index: HIV, LLPS, Measles, Rabies, SARS-CoV-2, Vesicular Stomatitis virus, biomolecular condensates, influenza A virus, liquid organelles, viral factories, viruses