Fractional-order calculus is about the differentiation and integration of non-integer orders . Fractional calculus (FC) is based on fractional-order thinking (FOT) and has been shown to help us to understand complex systems better, improve the processing of complex signals, enhance the control of complex systems, increase the performance of optimization, and even extend the enabling of the potential for creativity . In this article, the authors discuss the fractional dynamics, FOT and rich fractional stochastic models . First, the use of fractional dynamics in big data analytics for quantifying big data variability stemming from the generation of complex systems is justified . Second, we show why fractional dynamics is needed in machine learning and optimal randomness when asking:``is there a more optimal way to optimize?". Third, an optimal randomness case study for a stochastic configuration network (SCN) machine-learning method with heavy-tailed distributions is discussed . Finally, views on big data and (physics-informed) machine learning with fractional dynamics for future research are presented with concluding remarks.
Index: big data, diversity, fractional calculus, fractional dynamics, fractional-order thinking, heavytailedness, machine learning, variability