An increasing number of countries are investing efforts to exploit the human genome, in order to improve genetic diagnostics and to pave the way for the integration of precision medicine into health systems . The expected benefits include improved understanding of normal and pathological genomic variation, shorter time-to-diagnosis, cost-effective diagnostics, targeted prevention and treatment, and research advances.We review the 41 currently active individual national projects concerning their aims and scope, the number and age structure of included subjects, funding, data sharing goals and methods, and linkage with biobanks, medical data, and non-medical data (exposome). The main aims of ongoing projects were to determine normal genomic variation (90 %), determine pathological genomic variation (rare disease, complex diseases, cancer, etc .) (71 %), improve infrastructure (59 %), and enable personalized medicine (37 %). Numbers of subjects to be sequenced ranges substantially, from a hundred to over a million, representing in some cases a significant portion of the population . Approximately half of the projects report public funding, with the rest having various mixed or private funding arrangements . 90% of projects report data sharing (public, academic, and/or commercial with various levels of access) and plan on linking genomic data and medical data (78 %), existing biobanks (44 %), and/or non-medical data (24 %) as the basis for enabling personal/precision medicine in the future.Our results show substantial diversity in the analysed categories of 41 ongoing national projects . The overview of current designs will hopefully inform national initiatives in designing new genomic projects and contribute to standardisation and international collaboration.
Index: Exposome, National genomic projects, Normal genomic variation, Pathological genomic variation, Personalized medicine, Population genomics, Precision medicine