BACKGROUND: Time to surgery (TTS) has been suggested to have an association with mortality in early-stage breast cancer .
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the association between TTS and preoperative disease progression in tumor size or nodal status among women diagnosed with clinical T1N0M0 ductal breast cancer .
METHODS: Women diagnosed with clinical T1N0M0 ductal breast cancer who had breast-conserving surgery as their first definitive treatment between 2010 and 2016 (n = 90,405) were analyzed using the National Cancer Database . Separate multivariable logistic regression models for hormone receptor (HR) -positive and HR-negative patients, adjusted for clinical and demographic variables, were used to assess the relationship between TTS and upstaging of tumor size (T-upstaging) or nodal status (N-upstaging).
RESULTS: T-upstaging occurred in 6.76% of HR-positive patients and 11.00% of HR-negative patients, while N-upstaging occurred in 12.69% and 10.75% of HR-positive and HR-negative patients, respectively . Among HR-positive patients, odds of T-upstaging were higher for 61-90 days TTS (odds ratio [OR] 1.18 , 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.34) and ≥91 days TTS (OR 1.47 , 95% CI 1.17-1.84) compared with ≤30 days TTS, and odds of N- upstaging were higher for ≥91 days TTS (OR 1.35 , 95% CI 1.13-1.62). No association between TTS and either T- or N-upstaging was found among HR-negative patients . Other clinical and demographic variables, including grade, tumor location, and race/ethnicity, were associated with both T- and N-upstaging .
CONCLUSION: TTS ≥61 and ≥91 days was a significant predictor of T- and N-upstaging, respectively, in HR-positive patients; however, TTS was not associated with upstaging in HR-negative breast cancer . Delays in surgery may contribute to measurable disease progression in T1N0M0 ductal breast cancer.