Traditional Machine Learning (ML) models have had limited success in predicting Coronoavirus-19 (COVID-19) outcomes using Electronic Health Record (EHR) data partially due to not effectively capturing the inter-connectivity patterns between various data modalities . In this work, we propose a novel framework that utilizes relational learning based on a heterogeneous graph model (HGM) for predicting mortality at different time windows in COVID-19 patients within the intensive care unit (ICU). We utilize the EHRs of one of the largest and most diverse patient populations across five hospitals in major health system in New York City . In our model, we use an LSTM for processing time varying patient data and apply our proposed relational learning strategy in the final output layer along with other static features . Here, we replace the traditional softmax layer with a Skip-Gram relational learning strategy to compare the similarity between a patient and outcome embedding representation . We demonstrate that the construction of a HGM can robustly learn the patterns classifying patient representations of outcomes through leveraging patterns within the embeddings of similar patients . Our experimental results show that our relational learning-based HGM model achieves higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (auROC) than both comparator models in all prediction time windows, with dramatic improvements to recall.
Index: COVID-19, Electronic health records, ICU, LSTM, deep learning, embeddings, heterogeneous graph model, machine learning, mortality, relational learning