With the emergence of new pathogens like coronavirus disease 2019 and the prevalence of cancer as one of the leading causes of mortality globally, the effort to develop appropriate materials to address these challenges is a critical research area . Researchers around the world are investigating new types of materials and biological systems to fight against various diseases that affect humans and animals . Carbon nanostructures with their properties of straightforward functionalization, capability for drug loading, biocompatibility, and antiviral properties have become a major focus of biomedical researchers . However, reducing toxicity, enhancing biocompatibility, improving dispersibility, and enhancing water solubility have been challenging for carbon-based biomedical systems . The goal of this article is to provide a review on the latest progress involving the use of carbon nanostructures, namely fullerenes, graphene, and carbon nanotubes, for drug delivery, cancer therapy, and antiviral applications.