Considerable number of works have reported alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enabled intracellular targeting by peptide assemblies, but little is known how these substrates of ALP enters cells . Here we show that the nanoscale assemblies of phosphopeptides, as a dynamic continuum, cluster ALP to enable caveolae mediated endocytosis (CME) and eventual endosomal escape . Specifically, fluorescent phosphopeptides, as substrates of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), undergo enzyme catalyzed self-assembly to form nanofibers . As shown by live cell imaging, the nanoparticles of phosphopeptides, being incubated with HEK293 cells overexpressing red fluorescent protein-tagged TNAP (TNAP-RFP), cluster TNAP-RFP in lipid rafts to enable CME, further dephosphorylation of the phosphopeptides form the peptide nanofibers for endosomal escape inside cells . Inhibiting TNAP, cleaving the membrane anchored TNAP, or disrupting lipid rafts abolishes the endocytosis . Moreover, decreasing the formation of peptide nanofibers prevents the endosomal escape . As the first study establishing a dynamic continuum of supramolecular assemblies for cellular uptake, this work not only illustrates an effective design for enzyme responsive supramolecular therapeutics, but also provides mechanism insights for understanding the dynamics of cellular uptakes of proteins or exogenous peptide aggregates at nanoscale.