As European governments face resurging waves of COVID-19, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) continue to be the primary tool for infection control . However, updated estimates of their relative effectiveness have been absent for Europe's second wave, largely due to a lack of collated data that considers the increased subnational variation and diversity of NPIs . We collect the largest dataset of NPI implementation dates in Europe, spanning 114 subnational areas in 7 countries, with a systematic categorisation of interventions tailored to the second wave . Using a hierarchical Bayesian transmission model, we estimate the effectiveness of 17 NPIs from local case and death data . We manually validate the data, address limitations in modelling from previous studies, and extensively test the robustness of our estimates . The combined effect of all NPIs was smaller relative to estimates from the first half of 2020, indicating the strong influence of safety measures and individual protective behaviours--such as distancing--that persisted after the first wave . Closing specific businesses was highly effective . Gathering restrictions were highly effective but only for the strictest limits . We find smaller effects for closing educational institutions compared to the first wave, suggesting that safer operation of schools was possible with a set of stringent safety measures including testing and tracing, preventing mixing, and smaller classes . These results underscore that effectiveness estimates from the early stage of an epidemic are measured relative to pre-pandemic behaviour . Updated estimates are required to inform policy in an ongoing pandemic.