The SARS-CoV-2 Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) is both the principal target of neutralizing antibodies, and one of the most rapidly evolving domains, which can result in the emergence of immune escape mutations limiting the effectiveness of vaccines and antibody therapeutics . To facilitate surveillance, we developed a rapid, high-throughput, multiplex assay able to assess the inhibitory response of antibodies to 24 RBD natural variants simultaneously . We demonstrate that immune escape can occur through two mechanisms, antibodies that fail to recognize mutations, along with antibodies that have reduced inhibitory capacity due to enhanced variant RBD-ACE2 affinity . A competitive approach where antibodies simultaneously compete with ACE2 for binding to the RBD may therefore more accurately reflect the physiological dynamics of infection . We describe the enhanced affinity of RBD variants N439K, S477N, Q493L, S494P and N501Y to the ACE2 receptor, and demonstrate the ability of this assay to bridge a major gap for SARS-CoV-2 research; informing selection of complementary monoclonal antibody candidates and the rapid identification of immune escape to emerging RBD variants following vaccination or natural infection.