BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the cause of the third pneumonia-like outbreak of coronaviruses in humans during the 21st century . The status of the host immune system is a critical factor that affects the severity and outcomes of COVID-19 . In particular, antibody responses are an indicator of the anti-viral defense; so, a delayed or inappropriate induction of these responses would correlate with a defect in the viral clearance .
METHODS: This is a rapid synthesis of literature investigating antibody responses in patients with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and COVID-19 .
RESULTS: Lessons learned from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), along with the direct evidence of antibody responses in COVID-19, pose the potentials of dynamic antibody responses for screening and prognostic purposes in COVID-19 . Also, neutralizing antibodies extracted from recovered patients and monoclonal antibodies targeting cytokines offer therapeutic support for COVID-19 .
CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, the dynamics of antibody responses help to determine the effectiveness of treatments for COVID-19 . Of note, it might be helpful for the evaluation of the efficacy of immunotherapy and vaccination - the dreams for the future of COVID-19 . Further studies are necessary to investigate the possibility and efficacy of antibody extraction from animal subjects . Finally, numerous factors affect antibody response such as race, nutrition status, and virus mutations in viral infections, which need to be considered in the context of COVID-19.