This study uses a risk and resilience framework to examine short-term self-reported changes in relationship conflict early in the COVID-19 pandemic (March and April 2020). Longitudinal data from U.S. adults in a romantic relationship (N = 291) were collected via three waves of an online survey . Participants self-reported anxiety, depression, increased alcohol use, and dyadic coping since the pandemic . Relationship conflict variables included whether the participant reported that they and their partner``had disagreements related to the Coronavirus ,"`` had more disagreements than usual ,"`` had more verbal fights than usual ,"and``had more physical fights than usual"in the past two weeks . Analyses controlled for sociodemographic characteristics as well as days spent in lockdown and employment change due to COVID-19 . Results indicated that couples' disagreement and verbal fighting scores increased from Time 1 to Time 2, but disagreements related to COVID-19 and physical fighting did not . Couples with higher levels of dyadic coping reported fewer fights and disagreements on average . However, dyadic coping did not buffer participants from increases in relationship conflict . Increased alcohol use since the pandemic was positively associated with disagreements related to COVID-19, disagreement scores, and verbal fighting scores . More days spent in lockdown was associated with increases in disagreements related to COVID-19 . The conditions created by COVID-19 may contribute to worsening relationship conflict, even among couples who start with high levels of dyadic coping . Depression and alcohol use may contribute to poorer relationship quality during the pandemic . There is need for enhanced intervention and mental health supports to mitigate the potential effects of the pandemic on couples' relationship functioning.