Baricitinib is a JAK1/2 inhibitor first approved for treating moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis but later showed considerable efficacy in the control of exaggerated inflammatory responses that occur in a wide range of diseases . There is a growing body of evidence, obtained from clinical trials and case reports, demonstrating clinical and paraclinical improvement in patients following administration of baricitinib including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, interferon-mediated auto-inflammatory diseases, graft versus host disease, diabetic kidney disease, and recently, coronavirus disease-19 . However, despite overall encouraging results, many adverse effects have been observed in baricitinib-treated patients ranging from simple infections to increased risk of malignancies, particularly in long-term use . The significant efficacy of baricitinib on one hand and the probable adverse effects, on the other hand, urge for further investigations before establishing it as a part of standard therapeutic protocols . Herein, we have provided a review of the studies which have used baricitinib for treating various inflammatory disorders and summarized the advantages and disadvantages of its administration . This article is protected by copyright . All rights reserved.