OBJECTIVES: The biomarkers of an immunological dysregulation due to a chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are indeed understudied . If untreated, this condition may evolve into liver impairment also co-occurred by extrahepatic involvements . Here, we aim to identify a new panel of biomarkers including IgG subclasses, Rheumatoid Factor (RF), and Free Light Chains (FLC) that may result useful and reliable for clinical evaluation of HBV-related cryoglobulinemia .
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 44 HBV positive patients . Patients were stratified on the presence/absence of mixed cryoglobulinemia in two group : 22 with cryoglobulins (CGs) and 22 without CGs . Samples from 20 healthy blood donors (HD) were used as negative controls . Serum samples were tested for IgG subclasses, RF (IgM, IgG, and IgA type), and FLC .
RESULTS: We detected a strikingly different serum IgG subclasses distribution between HD and HBV positive patients together with different RF isotypes; FLC were significantly increased in HBV-patients if compared with HD while no significant difference was shown between HBV with/without MC .
CONCLUSION: The immune-inflammatory response triggered by HBV may be monitored by a peculiar profile of biomarkers . Our results open new perspective in precision medicine era; in these challenging times, they could be also employed to monitor the clinical course of COVID-19 patients, at high risk of HBV reactivation due to liver impairment and/or immunosuppressive therapies.