The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads and rages around the world and threatens human life . It is disappointing that there are no specific drugs until now . The combination of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medication seems to be the current more effective treatment strategy for COVID-19 patients in China . In this review, we mainly discussed the relationship between COVID-19 and gut microbiota (GM), as well as the possible impact of TCM combined with western medication on GM in the treatment of COVID-19 patients, aiming to provide references for the possible role of GM in TCM against COVID-19 . The available data suggest that GM dysbiosis did occur in COVID-19 patients, and the intervention of GM could ameliorate the clinical condition of COVID-19 patients . In addition, TCMs (e.g., Jinhua Qinggan granule, Lianhua Qingwen capsule, Qingfei Paidu decoction, Shufeng Jiedu capsule, Qingjin Jianghuo decoction, Toujie Quwen granules, and MaxingShigan) have been proven to be safe and effective for the treatment of COVID-19 in Chinese clinic . Among them, Ephedra sinica, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Bupleurum chinense, Lonicera japonica, Scutellaria baicalensi, and Astragalus membranaceus are common herbs and have a certain regulation on GM, immunity, and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Notably, Qingfei Paidu decoction and MaxingShigan have been demonstrated to modulate GM . Finally, the hypothesis of GM-mediated TCM treatment of COVID-19 is proposed, and more clinical trials and basic experiments need to be initiated to confirm this hypothesis.