INTRODUCTION: Understanding the impact of lockdown upon resistance training (RT), and how people adapted their RT behaviours, has implications for strategies to maintain engagement in similar positive health behaviours . Further, doing so will provide a baseline for investigation of the long-term effects of these public health measures upon behaviours and perceptions, and facilitate future follow-up study .
OBJECTIVES: To determine how the onset of coronavirus (COVID-19), and associated 'lockdown', affected RT behaviours, in addition to motivation, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment, and intent to continue, in those who regularly performed RT prior to the pandemic .
METHODS: We conducted an observational, cross-sectional study using online surveys in multiple languages (English, Danish, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Slovakian, Swedish, and Japanese) distributed across social media platforms and through authors' professional and personal networks . Adults (n = 5389; median age = 31 years [interquartile range (IQR) = 25 , 38] ), previously engaged in RT prior to lockdown (median prior RT experience = 7 years [IQR = 4 , 12] ) participated . Outcomes were self-reported RT behaviours including: continuation of RT during lockdown, location of RT, purchase of specific equipment for RT, method of training, full-body or split routine, types of training, repetition ranges, exercise number, set volumes (per exercise and muscle group), weekly frequency of training, perception of effort, whether training was planned/recorded, time of day, and training goals . Secondary outcomes included motivation, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment, and intent to continue RT .
RESULTS: A majority of individuals (82.8 %) maintained participation in RT during-lockdown . Marginal probabilities from generalised linear models and generalised estimating equations for RT behaviours were largely similar from pre- to during-lockdown . There was reduced probability of training in privately owned gyms (~ 59% to ~ 7 %) and increased probability of training at home (~ 18% to ~ 89 %); greater probability of training using a full-body routine (~ 38% to ~ 51 %); reduced probability of resistance machines (~ 66% to ~ 13 %) and free weight use (~ 96% to ~ 81 %), and increased probability of bodyweight training (~ 62% to ~ 82 %); reduced probability of moderate repetition ranges (~ 62-82% to ~ 55-66 %) and greater probability of higher repetition ranges (~ 27% to ~ 49 %); and moderate reduction in the perception of effort experienced during-training (r = 0.31). Further, individuals were slightly less likely to plan or record training during lockdown and many changed their training goals . Additionally, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment, and likelihood of continuing current training were all lower during-lockdown .
CONCLUSIONS: Those engaged in RT prior to lockdown these behaviours with only slight adaptations in both location and types of training performed . However, people employed less effort, had lower motivation, and perceived training as less effective and enjoyable, reporting their likelihood of continuing current training was similar or lower than pre-lockdown . These results have implications for strategies to maintain engagement in positive health behaviours such as RT during-restrictive pandemic-related public health measures . PRE-REGISTRATION: https: //osf.io/qcmpf . PREPRINT: The preprint version of this work is available on SportR & #967; iv: https: //osf.io/preprints/sportrxiv/b8s7e/.