Objectives . To examine SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) epidemiology and risk factors among Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) staff in the United States.Methods . We calculated the SARS-CoV-2 case rate among 37 640 BOP staff from March 12 to June 17 , 2020, using payroll and COVID-19-specific data . We compared occupational factors among staff with and without known SARS-CoV-2 using multiple logistic regression, controlling for demographic characteristics . We calculated relative risk among staff in stand-alone institutions versus complexes (> 1 institution).Results . SARS-CoV-2 was reported by 665 staff across 59.8% of institutions, a case rate of 1766.6 per 100 000 . Working in dorm-style housing and in detention centers were strong risk factors, whereas cell-based housing was protective; these effects were erased in complexes . Occupational category was not associated with SARS-CoV-2.Conclusions . SARS-CoV-2 infection was more likely among staff working in institutions where physical distancing and limiting exposure to a consistent set of staff and inmates are challenging.Public Health Implications . Mitigation strategies-including augmented staff testing, entry and exit testing among inmates, limiting staff interactions across complexes, and increasing physical distancing by reducing occupancy in dorm-style housing-may prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections among correctional staff . (Am J Public Health . Published online ahead of print April 15 , 2021: e1-e4 . https: //doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306237).